Box and Whisker plot or commonly known as Box Plot, is a very useful and one of the most informative data visualization used to show the distribution at a glance. So it is a good visualization for data scientists to use it in their analysis.

Let us understand how to read a Box Plot. Suppose you are conducting a survey for a product X, that how many times users have used it in the past week. And then you plot the collected data using Box Plot.

The section above the white line represents the top 50% of the population which used product X. Those in top 25%(3rd quartile) of the product X users are shown by the top “whisker” and dots. Dots represent the outliers and if more than one outlier have the same value, dots are placed side by side.

The white line in the Box Plot represents the median.It is an essential parameter as when data is in large numbers it is a more robust statistic than mean. A few people with huge product X usage count will drag the mean upwards which isn’t representative of most users. Median is resistant to change, since it marks the halfway point from all data points. Since we are testing half of the points of the data we can set a reliable location to our distribution.

One more parameter which can be determined is the Interquartile Range(IQR). It is a measure of how spread out your data is around the mean and is calculated as the difference between the third and the first Quartile in a data set.

Let us create some Box-plots in R using diamonds data-set which is available in ggplot2 library.

```
library(ggplot2)
data(diamonds)
```

```
ggplot(aes(x=cut,y=price), data=diamonds)+
geom_boxplot(color="black",fill="brown")+
coord_cartesian(ylim=c(500,10500))
```

To perform its quantitative analysis you can use by instruction.

`by(diamonds$price,diamonds$cut,summary)`

```
## diamonds$cut: Fair
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 337 2050 3282 4359 5206 18570
## --------------------------------------------------------
## diamonds$cut: Good
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 327 1145 3050 3929 5028 18790
## --------------------------------------------------------
## diamonds$cut: Very Good
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 336 912 2648 3982 5373 18820
## --------------------------------------------------------
## diamonds$cut: Premium
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 326 1046 3185 4584 6296 18820
## --------------------------------------------------------
## diamonds$cut: Ideal
## Min. 1st Qu. Median Mean 3rd Qu. Max.
## 326 878 1810 3458 4678 18810
```